$6.00 describe 2 difficulties that an internat
describe 2 difficulties that an international logistician could experience in moving goods from a country with a developed infrastructure (transportation, communication, and utilities) to a country with a deficient infrastructure.
describe 2 difficulties that an international logistician could experience in moving goods from a country with a develop
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- Posted on Oct. 29, 2011 at 12:34:04AM
Preview: ... ency is strong relative to other currencies, the opposite occurs. Differences in regulations, laws, and legal systems also add to the challenges of international logistics and the degree of enforcement of existing regulations and laws is not uniform from country to country. Cultural considerations, such as differences in language, also contribute to international logistics challenges. Moreover, for goods moving in cross-border trade, it is no ...
The full tutorial is about 329 words long .
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- Posted on Oct 29, 2011 at 3:38:48PM
Preview: ... le domestic situations, such as recessions. While companies choosing to market internationally do not share an overall profile, they seem to have two specific characteristics in common. First, the products that they market abroad, usually patented, have high earnings potential in foreign markets; in other words, the international sale of these products should eventually generate a substantial percentage of the products' total revenue. Also, these products usually have a price or cost advantage over similar products or have some other attribute making them novel and more desirable to end users abroad. Second, the management of companies marketing internationally must be ready to make a commitment to these markets. They must be willing to educate themselves thoroughly on the particular countries they choose to enter and must understand the potential benefits and risks of a decision to market abroad. MODERN U.S. HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETING Marketing abroad is not a recent phenomenon. In fact, well-established trade routes existed three or four thousand years before the birth of Christ. Modern international marketing, however, can arguably be traced to the 1920s, when liberal international trading was halted by worldwide isolationism and increased barriers to trade. The United States furthered this trend by passing the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930, raising the average U.S. tariff on imported goods from 33 to 53 cents. Other countries throughout the world imposed similar tariffs in response to the United States' actions, and by 1932 the volume of world trade fell by more than 40 percent. These protectionist activities continued throughout the 1930s, and the Great Depression, to which many say protectionism substantially contributed, was deeper and more widespread than any other depression in modern history. Furthermore, according to the United Nations, this protectionism undermined the standard of living of people all over the world and set the stage for the extreme military buildup that led to World War II. One result of the Great Depression and World War II was strengthened political will to end protectionist policies and to limit government interference in international trade. Thus, by 1944 representative countries attending the Bretton Woods Conference established the basic organizational setting for the post-war economy, designed to further macroeconomic stability. Specifically, the framework that arose created three organizations: the International Trade Organization (ITO), the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Although negotiations undertaken for the ITO proved unsuccessful, the United States proposed that the commercial policy provisions that were originally be included in the ITO agreements should be temporarily incorporated into the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). In 1947, 23 countries agreed to a set of tariff reductions codified in GATT. Although GATr was at first intended as a temporary measure, because ITO was never ratified, it became the main instrument for international trade regulation. GATT was succeeded by the World Trade Organization (WTO), which was established in January 1995 after GATT officially ended in April 1994. The WTO's main function has been to resolve trade disputes, and it developed procedures for handling trade disputes that were much improved over the GATr procedures. In its first 18 months the WTO settled more than 50 trade disputes. ...
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